|Alternative Designations||Advanced Antitank Weapon System-Medium (AAWS-M)|
|Country of Origin||USA|
|Date Of Introduction||1996|
|Weight||49.5 lb (22.5 kg)|
|M98A1 Command Launch Unit (CLU)|
|Weight||14.16 lb (6.42 kg) - With battery, carrying bag, and cleaning kit|
|Dimensions (LxWxH)||13.71 x 19.65 x 13.34 in (348.2 x 499.1 x 338.8 mm)|
|Daysight Field-of-view (FOV)||4.80° x 6.40°|
|Nightsight Wide Field-of-view (WFOV) Magnification||4.2X|
|Nightsight WFOV||4.58° x 6.11°|
|Nightsight Narrow Field-of-view (NFOV) Magnification||9.2X|
|Nightsight NFOV||2.00° x 3.00° (approximately)|
|Battery Type||Lithium Sulfur Dioxide (LiSO2) BA-5590/U, nonrechargeable|
|Battery Life||4.0 hrs below 120°F (49°C)|
3.0 hrs between 50°F to 120°F (10°C to 49°C)
1.0 hrs between -20°F to 50°F (-49°C to 10°C)
0.5 hrs above 120°F (49°C)
|Battery Weight||2.2 lbs (1.00 kg)|
|Unit Cost||$126,000 (2002)|
|Round - Launch tube assembly (LTA) with missile and BCU|
|Weight||35.14 lb (15.97 kg)|
|Length||47.60 in (1,209 mm)|
|Diameter With End Caps||11.75 in (298.5 mm)|
|Inside Diameter||5.52 in (140.2 mm)|
|Minimum Range||Top Attack: 164 yd (150 m)|
Direct Attack: 71 yd (65 m)
|Maximum Effective Range||2,187 yd (2,000 m)|
|Flight Time||About 4.6 seconds at 1,000 meters|
About 14.5 seconds at 2,000 meters
|Guidance System||Imaging infrared (I²R), fire and forget|
|Unit Cost||$78,000 (2002)|
|Battery Coolant Unit (BCU)|
|Weight||2.91 lb (1.32 kg)|
|Dimensions (LxW)||8.16 x 4.63 in (207.3 x 117.6 mm)|
|Life||4 min of BCU time|
Javelin is the medium anti-tank system for infantry, scouts and combat engineers. These forces must have the
capability to defeat armored forces during the day, at night, and during limited visibility conditions.
The Javelin is operated by an individual soldier or in crews of two or three. The Javelin can be delivered by
individual paratrooper, door bundle, tracked/wheeled vehicles, rail, ship, or air.
This system has a high kill rate against all known armor threats at extended ranges under day/night, adverse weather
and multiple counter-measure conditions. The system's soft launch permits firing from a fighting position or an
Javelin uses a modular design to allow the system to evolve to meet changing threats and requirements via both
software and hardware upgrades. The system consists of a reusable Command Launch Unit (CLU) with a built-in-test
(BIT), and a modular missile encased in a launch tube assembly (LTA). The system also includes training devices for
tactical training, classroom training, and handling exercises.
Javelin's fire-and-forget technology allows the gunner to fire and immediately take cover, to move to another
fighting position, or to reload. The Javelin provides enhanced lethality over the M47 Dragon through the use of a
tandem warhead which will defeat all known armor threats. It is effective against both stationary and moving targets.
The Javelin is capable of operating over 2.5 times the range of the M47 Dragon with a day/night integrated sight,
capable of target acquisition in adverse weather and through battlefield obscurant conditions.
This system has a secondary mission of destroying bunkers and provides defensive capability against
attacking/hovering helicopters. The CLU also has been used in a stand-alone mode for battlefield surveillance and
target selection in recent conflicts.
The Javelin is a direct replacement for the M47 Dragon.
M98A1 COMMAND LAUNCH UNIT (CLU)
The M98A1 CLU is the reusable portion of the Javelin system. The CLU contains a daysight, night vision sight,
controls, and indicators. The CLU components are a main housing, absorbers, handgrips, battery compartment,
daysight, night vision sight, eyepiece, test connector, and round interface connector. The command launch unit
attaches to the launch tube assembly (LTA).
- Main Housing. The main housing (body) of the CLU contains the system's electronics, the display, daysight, and night vision sight.
- Absorbers. The absorbers around the main housing of the CLU help protect the equipment during operation. The absorbers are replaceable. One absorber is a face shield that protects the gunner's face during missile launch.
- Handgrips. The gunner uses the handgrips attached to the sides of the main housing to hold the CLU. The gunner uses the controls on the handgrips for all Javelin operations.
- Battery Compartment. Located on the bottom of the main housing, the battery compartment houses the nonrechargeable BA-5590/U or the rechargeable BB390A battery (for training use only). The same battery is used in the single-channel ground and airborne radio system (SINCGARS) and can be interchanged with the CLU. A connector on the battery compartment joins to a corresponding connector on the battery. A wire bail holds the detachable battery compartment cover in place.
- Daysight. The daysight works much like a telescope and consists of a lens, status indicators, and an eyepiece. The daysight:
- Provides the gunner a visible-light image with 4X magnification for target viewing and battlefield surveillance.
- Can be used with power off for surveillance only to save battery life.
- Is not affected by infrared clutter.
- Night Vision Sight. The NVS is the primary sight used by the gunner.
The NVS is an imaging infrared (I²R) system, used during day or night.
It allows the gunner to see during conditions of limited visibility including darkness, obscuration, smoke, fog, inclement weather, and IR clutter.
The NVS operates by converting an infrared target image to a visible-light image for the gunner.
The NVS consists of the NVS lens, detector Dewar cooler, CLU display and eyepiece provides the gunner with both a 4X (WFOV) and 9X (NFOV) magnification for scanning and target detection.
- Detector Dewar cooler (DDC) cools the NVS to the proper operating temperature and converts infrared energy to electrical signals. These signals are sent to the CLU display by way of the signal processor to provide the gunner a picture of the target area
- The CLU display is like a miniature television, which is used to make the wide field of view (WFOV), narrow field of view (NFOV), and seeker infrared images visible to the gunner. The cathode ray tube (CRT) converts electrical signals from the signal processor into visible images for the gunner.
- The CLU status indicators are fourteen icons that surround the CLU display. The icons identify operational modes, conditions, and malfunctions coded in green, amber, and red. The icons give the gunner continuous feedback about the current missile readiness or possible system malfunctions, visible during day and night usage.
- The eyepiece allows the gunner to see the CLU display. Through the eyepiece, the gunner sees the DAY FOV, WFOV, NFOV, seeker FOV, and the status indicators. The eyepiece consists of a lens assembly, eyecup, and diopter adjust ring. The gunner uses the diopter adjust ring to adjust the focus of the image.
- The test connector is used to perform direct support (DS) or higher-level maintenance and to interface with the FTT.
- The round interface connector provides the electrical connection between the CLU and the round.
- The humidity indicator displays the quality of the air inside the CLU (white or blue within acceptable levels; pink requires maintenance).
The round consists of the missile environmentally sealed in the launch tube assembly (LTA) and the battery coolant unit (BCU).
The round has a 10-year shelf life. The only requirement for maintenance is for stockpile surveillance.
serves as the launch platform and carrying container for the missile.
It is a single-piece, composite graphite/epoxy design. The launch tube protects the missile from the environment before the missile is launched.
All other LTA components mount externally on the tube. Once the missile is launched, the LTA is discarded.
has the battery section and a compressed-gas coolant section.
The battery section powers the missile electronics before missile launch.
The coolant section cools the missile seeker to its operating temperature before missile launch.
The BCU is a single-use unit with 4 minutes of operating time and is not rechargeable.
Once the missile has been fired, the spent BCU is discarded with the LTA.
The missile contains the guidance section, mid-body section, warhead section, propulsion section and control actuator section.
The guidance section
provides target tracking and flight control signals.
It is the forward section of the missile and includes the seeker head section and the guidance electronics unit.
- The seeker head section, known as the seeker, contains the missile imaging infrared (I²R) system and the contact switches to detonate the warhead. The missile I²R system gives the missile its fire-and-forget capability. During flight to the target, the missile I²R system tracks the target and sends target location information to the on board guidance electronics unit.
- The guidance electronics unit (GEU) serves two functions. It controls the seeker head so it looks at the target and sends signals to the control actuator section to guide the missile to the target during flight.
The mid-body section
includes the missile skin, electronic safe arm and fire unit (ESAF), wings, and the main charge of the warhead.
- The missile skin is a structural part of the missile and provides environmental protection for the internal components during flight.
- The Electronic Safe, Arm, and Fire (ESAF) is the principal safety device that prevents accidental ignition of the motors and accidental warhead detonation. The ESAF consists of circuits and two detonators (one for the precursor and one for the main charge). The ESAF controls missile launch sequence and warhead detonation. It permits starting the rocket motors in the proper sequence when the gunner pulls the fire trigger and all other firing conditions have been met. When the missile hits the target, the ESAF detonates each warhead charge in sequence.
- The wings provide lift and keep the missile stabilized during flight. The wings fold into slots in the missile skin when the missile is in the LTA and deploy into flight position after clearing the LTA.
The Javelin missile uses a dual charged warhead
. The warhead has a precursor charge and main charge.
- The precursor charge is a HE anti-tank shaped charge. Its purpose is to cause reactive armor on the target to detonate before the main charge reaches the armor. Once the reactive armor is penetrated, the target's main hull is exposed to the warhead's main charge. If the target is not equipped with reactive armor, the precursor provides additional explosives to penetrate the main armor.
- The main charge is the second charge of a dual-charge warhead and is also an HE antitank shaped charge. The primary warhead charge is designed to penetrate the target's main armor to achieve a target kill.
The propulsion section
consists of the launch and flight motors.
- The launch motor propels the missile out of the LTA. It provides the initial force to push the missile a safe distance from the gunner before the flight motor ignites to ensure the gunner's safety. The launch motor is completely spent by the time the missile clears the LTA, this accounts for the low signature after launch.
- The flight motor powers the missile to the target during flight. It ignites when the missile is a safe distance from the gunner, protecting the gunner from hot exhaust gases generated when the motor fires.
The control actuator section
maneuvers the missile during flight and provides internal electrical power. The control actuator section consists of four control fins, four thrust vector control vanes, and a thermal battery.
- The control fins maneuver the missile during flight. The fins are spring-loaded, automatically deploy, and lock into flight position after the missile clears the LTA. During flight, they adjust automatically to guide the missile to the target.
- The thrust vector control (TVC) vanes aid the control fins in maneuvering the missile during flight by deflecting the flight motor exhaust. This control changes the angle of thrust from the flight motor, resulting in a change to the missile's flight path.
- The thermal battery provides internal electrical power for the missile during flight. It is sealed in the body of the missile.
Prone Supported (on forward end cap)
Correct Prone Body Position
The missile has two gunner-selectable attack modes: top or direct. Each mode has its own flight path or profile for reaching the target.
The top attack
is the default mode when the missile seeker is first activated. In the top attack mode,
the missile approaches from above to impact and detonate on the top of the target. This capacity allows the gunner
to attack a vehicle from the front, rear, or the side and greatly increases the probability of a kill. Armored
vehicles usually have less protective armor on top. Top attack also prevents an enemy target from protecting itself
by moving behind frontal cover. The minimum engagement distance is 150 meters.
The exact profile of the missile flight path depends on the range to the target and is determined automatically by
the missile's onboard software). When firing at a 2,000-meter target, the missile reaches a height of about 160
meters above the battlefield. If the target is under a protective structure, using the top attack mode will cause
the missile to detonate on the structure instead of on the target. The gunner can select the direct-attack mode to
counter targets hiding under protective cover.
The direct attack
mode can be selected only after seeker cooldown and before lock-on. The gunner pushes the
attack select (ATTK SEL) switch on the right handgrip to change attack modes. In the direct attack mode, the missile
flies on a more direct path to the target. The missile impacts and detonates on the side (front, rear, or flank) of
the target. The minimum engagement distance is 65 meters.
The exact profile of the missile flight path (shown in a general configuration above) depends on the range to the
target and is determined automatically by the missile's onboard software. With a 2,000-meter target, the missile
reaches a height of about 60 meters above the battlefield. This path allows the missile to reach a target under a
The backblast of the Javelin comes from the firing of the launch motor and the flight motor. The Javelin has little
recoil because the propellant gases escape to the rear of the weapon. This backblast can damage equipment or
seriously injure personnel who are too close to the rear of the launch tube at time of firing.
The Javelin backblast area extends 100 meters to the rear and up to 25 meters to the sides of the launcher and forms
a 60° danger area. It is divided into a primary danger zone and two caution areas.
The primary danger area is a 60° included sector, with the apex of the sector at the aft end of the missile
launch motor. The primary danger area radius of curvature is 25 meters. Serious injury or fatality is possible for
personnel in the primary danger zone during firing. A portion of the primary danger area has been extended forward
to the firing line. This portion is within the range of 1 to 5 meters left and right of launch tube centerline.
Caution Area 1 is an area extending radially (25 meters) from each side of the primary danger zone to the firing
line. Serious hearing impairment or damage from frequent exposure could occur to personnel in this area during
firings. Personnel should always wear the approved hearing and eye protection when positioned in Area 1.
Caution Area 2 is identified as a 100-meter radius, aft of the launcher and within the 60° sector. This area is
affected by the activation of the FM pressure relief system. Caution Area 2 is an extension to the rear of the
primary danger zone. Hearing impairment and eye damage could occur to personnel that are 10 meters beyond the
primary danger zone during firing. Personnel should always wear the approved hearing and eye protection when
positioned in Area 2.
- The maximum effective range of the Javelin is 2,000 meters.
- The Javelin has a fire and forget capability. The missile imaging infrared (I²R) system gives the missile the ability to guide itself to the target when launched by the gunner.
- The Javelin has two missile flight paths:
- Top attack fight path is designed to impact on the top of the target.
- Direct attack flight path is designed to impact on the side (front, rear, flank) of the target.
- The Javelin gunner is capable of firing up to three missiles within 2 minutes.
- The dual-shaped charge warhead is capable of defeating any known enemy armor.
- The night vision sight (NVS) sees little degradation of the target image.
- Countermeasures used by the enemy is countered by the NVS filter.
- The Javelin is man-portable.
- The Javelin is maneuverable over short distances for the gunners.
- The fire and forget capability allows the gunner to shoot and move before missile impact.
- The soft launch capability of the Javelin allows it to be fired from inside buildings and bunkers.
- The passive infrared targeting system used to acquire lock-on cannot be detected.
- The launch motor produces a small signature. Because of the Javelin's low backblast, it can be fired from smaller, harder to locate, better protected positions that give the gunner a greater chance of remaining undetected or, if detected, surviving any suppressive fires.
- The fire and forget feature allows the gunner to take cover immediately after the missile is launched.
- The CLU sight cannot discriminate targets past 2,000 meters.
- The NVS cool down time is from 2.5 to 3.5 minutes.
- The seeker's cool-down time is about 10 seconds.
- The BCU life, once activated, is about 4 minutes.
- During limited visibility (natural or man-made), rain, snow, sleet, fog, haze, smoke, dust, and night are collectively referred to as limited visibility conditions. The day FOV can be rendered useless during these conditions.
- The day FOV relies on daylight to provide the gunner a suitable target image.
- The NVS uses the infrared naturally emitted from objects. Infrared crossover is the time at dawn and dusk that the terrain and the target are close enough in temperature to cause the target to blend in with its surroundings. If there is little difference in the amount of infrared energy between a target and its background, then neither the Javelin CLU nor the missile seeker can see the target well, thus greatly degrading the performance of the Javelin. This situation may last as long as an hour, until either the background or the target changes temperature enough to become detectable.
- Natural clutter is when the sun heats objects to a close enough temperature that it causes the target to blend in with the surrounding terrain.
- Artificial clutter occurs when there are man-made objects that emit large amounts of infrared (for example, burning vehicles).
- Heavy fog reduces the capability of the gunner to detect and engage targets.
- The flight path of the missile is restricted in wooded, mountainous, and urban terrain.
- The gunner must have line of sight for the seeker to lock onto a target.
- The weight of the Javelin makes maneuvering slow over long distances. When employing the Javelin in the dismounted role, the soldier's load becomes important. With a total system weight of just under 50 pounds, the Javelin is heavy. Although a man-portable weapon, one soldier cannot easily carry the Javelin cross-country for extended periods.
- The Javelin round is bulky and restricts movement in heavily wooded or vegetative terrain.
- The gunner must partially expose himself to engage the enemy.
- The CLU requires a line-of-sight to acquire targets.
- The Javelin is primarily used to defeat main battle tanks and other armored combat vehicles. It has a moderate capability against bunkers, buildings, and other fortified targets commonly found during combat in built-up areas.
- The minimum engagement distance limits firing opportunities in the confines of densely built-up areas, and the Javelin may not be the weapon of choice in the urban environment where there are additional considerations including: fires (caused by both friendly and enemy) may cause target acquisition and lock-on problems; clutter on the battlefield may cause lock-on problems; and, line-of-sight communications may be limited by the structures.
- The Javelin's unique flight path forces the gunner to think in three dimensions. The urban environment has overhead obstacles such as street signs, light poles, and wires, which could impede the missile's flight path. In the top-attack mode, the Javelin missile requires up to 160-plus meters of overhead clearance. In the direct-attack mode, the Javelin requires up to 60-plus meters of overhead clearance.
- The Javelin missile has a minimum engagement distance (150 meters in the attack mode and 65 meters in the direct attack mode), which limits its use in built-up areas. Few areas in the inner city permit the gunner to fire much beyond the minimum arming distance. The gunner is usually limited to firing down streets, rail lines, parks, or plazas. The Javelin can effectively fire from upper level stories or roofs of buildings into other buildings.
- When a gunner comes across a target of opportunity, he may not be able to take advantage of it. The cool down time of the NVS is 2.5 to 3.5 minutes. Seeker cool down takes about 10 seconds. Once the BCU is activated, the gunner has a maximum of 4 minutes to engage the target before the BCU is spent. Vehicles crossing the street or moving between buildings (flank shot) are exposed for about 10 to 15 seconds, meaning the gunner may not have enough time to lock-on to the target and fire.
- The soft launch capability enables the gunner to fire from inside buildings because there is little overpressure or flying debris.
- The dual charge warhead penetrates typical urban targets. Penetration, however, does not mean a concurrent destruction of the structural integrity of a position. The direct attack mode is selected when engaging targets in a building. Enemy positions or bunkers in the open closer than 150 meters are engaged using the direct attack mode. Positions in the open farther than 150 meters are engaged using either the top or direct attack mode depending on the situation.
- The Javelin is not effective when breaching structural walls. The anti-tank guided missiles (ATGMs) are not designed to breach structural walls effectively. All ATGMs, to include the Javelin, are designed to produce a small hole, penetrate armor, and deliver the explosive charge. Breaching calls for the creation of a large hole. Firing ATGMs is the least efficient means to defeat structural walls. ATGMs are better used against armored vehicles or for the destruction of enemy-fortified fighting positions.
- The Javelin should be in the direct-fire mode when engaging helicopters. The rotors of the helicopter may interfere with the sensors of the missile in the top-attack mode and result in erratic flight of the missile and a target miss.
- Original production model.
- Javelin Missile Simulation Round (MSR)
The MSR is a field handling round with a simulated launch tube.
It replicates the weight and balance of the actual round.
The MSR contains no instruments or circuitry and is used to train gunners on how to maintain, handle, and carry the round.
- Javelin Block I
- The upgrade provides decreased time to target, increases detection, recognition, and identification range, and extends missile range (3-4KM).
It maintains both top attack and direct fire capability.
Javelin Photos - Click on image sample to see full size image.
Javelin test firing
U.S. Army Photo
750x576, 48K, JPEG
Javelin test firing
U.S. Army Photo
750x576, 43K, JPEG
U.S. Marines of 2d Battalion, 6th Marines
Blair Airfield, Iraq
May 2, 2003
U.S. Marine Corps photo by Sgt. Mauricio Campino
1024x768, 163K, JPEG
U.S. Marines of 2d Battalion, 6th Marines
Blair Airfield, Iraq
May 2, 2003
U.S. Marine Corps photo by Sgt. Mauricio Campino
1024x768, 201K, JPEG